[1] Reardon MJ, van Mieghem NM, Popma JJ, et al. Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement in Intermediate-Risk Patients. N Engl J Med 2017;376:1321–31 10.1056/NEJMoa1700456 [28304219]

[2] Laptook AR, Shankaran S, Tyson JE, et al. Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia Initiated After 6 Hours of Age on Death or Disability Among Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2017;318:1550–60 10.1001/jama.2017.14972 [29067428]

[3] Kapur J, Elm J, Chamberlain JM, et al. Randomized Trial of Three Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus. N Engl J Med 2019;381:2103–13 10.1056/NEJMoa1905795 [31774955]

[4] Effect of anakinra versus usual care in adults in hospital with COVID-19 and mild-to-moderate pneumonia (CORIMUNO-ANA-1): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2021;9:295–304 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30556-7 [33493450]

[5] Lawler PR, Goligher EC, Berger JS, et al. Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Noncritically Ill Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021 10.1056/NEJMoa2105911 [34351721]

[6] Azithromycin for community treatment of suspected COVID-19 in people at increased risk of an adverse clinical course in the UK (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial. Lancet 2021;397:1063–74 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00461-X [33676597]

[7] Angus DC, Berry S, Lewis RJ, et al. The REMAP-CAP (Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform for Community-acquired Pneumonia) Study. Rationale and Design. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020;17:879–91 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-192SD [32267771]

[8] Angus DC, Derde L, Al-Beidh F, et al. Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19: The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;324:1317–29 10.1001/jama.2020.17022 [32876697]

[9] Arabi YM, Gordon AC, Derde LPG, et al. Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 2021;47:867–86 10.1007/s00134-021-06448-5 [34251506]

[10] Gordon AC, Mouncey PR, Al-Beidh F, et al. Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1491–502 10.1056/NEJMoa2100433 [33631065]

[11] Hermine O, Mariette X, Tharaux P-L, et al. Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med 2021;181:32–40 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6820 [33080017]

[12] Korley FK, Durkalski-Mauldin V, Yeatts SD, et al. Early Convalescent Plasma for High-Risk Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021 10.1056/NEJMoa2103784 [34407339]

[13] Houston BL, Lawler PR, Goligher EC, et al. Anti-Thrombotic Therapy to Ameliorate Complications of COVID-19 (ATTACC): Study design and methodology for an international, adaptive Bayesian randomized controlled trial. Clin Trials 2020:1740774520943846 10.1177/1740774520943846 [32815416]

[14] Ioannidis JPA. Why most published research findings are false. PLOS Medicine 2005;2:e124 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 [16060722]

[15] Sterne JA, Davey Smith G. Sifting the evidence-what's wrong with significance tests? BMJ 2001;322:226–31 10.1136/bmj.322.7280.226 [11159626]

[16] Cucherat M, Laporte S. Les résultats faux positifs ou quelle est la probabilité que le traitement soit efficace quand p < 0,05 ? Thérapie 2017;72:421–26 10.1016/j.therap.2016.09.021 [28577824]

[17] Kaul S. Is the Mortality Benefit With Empagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Too Good To Be True? Circulation 2016;134:94–96 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022537 [27400894]

[18] Pibouleau L, Chevret S. Bayesian statistical method was underused despite its advantages in the assessment of implantable medical devices. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2011;64:270–79 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.03.018 [20800443]

[19] Sobieraj DM, Cappelleri JC, Baker WL, et al. Methods used to conduct and report Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons published in the medical literature: a systematic review. BMJ open 2013;3 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003111

[20] Kruschke JK. Bayesian Analysis Reporting Guidelines. Nat Hum Behav 2021;5:1282–91 10.1038/s41562-021-01177-7 [34400814]

[21] Hauser SL, Bar-Or A, Cohen JA, et al. Ofatumumab versus Teriflunomide in Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2020;383:546–57 10.1056/NEJMoa1917246 [32757523]


[23] LeLorier J, Grégoire G, Benhaddad A, et al. Discrepancies between meta-analyses and subsequent large randomized, controlled trials. New Engl J Med 1997;337:536–42 10.1056/NEJM199708213370806 [9262498]

[24] Bailar JC. The promise and problems of meta-analysis. New Engl J Med 1997;337:559–61 10.1056/NEJM199708213370810 [9262502]

[25] Ibrahim JG, Chen M-H, Sinha D. On Optimality Properties of the Power Prior. Journal of the American Statistical Association 2003;98:204–13 10.1198/016214503388619229

[26] Nissen SB, Magidson T, Gross K, et al. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts. eLife 2016;5 10.7554/eLife.21451 [27995896]

[27] Ridker PM, MacFadyen JG, Thuren T, et al. Effect of interleukin-1 β inhibition with canakinumab on incident lung cancer in patients with atherosclerosis: exploratory results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2017;390:1833–42 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32247-X [28855077]

[28] Absolutely Maybe. Reproducibility Crisis Timeline: Milestones in Tackling Research Reliability - Absolutely Maybe 2016 Accessed March 24, 2022.

[29] Tajika A, Ogawa Y, Takeshima N, et al. Replication and contradiction of highly cited research papers in psychiatry: 10-year follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 2015;207:357–62 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.143701 [26159600]

[30] Tatsioni A, Bonitsis NG, Ioannidis JPA. Persistence of contradicted claims in the literature. JAMA 2007;298:2517–26 10.1001/jama.298.21.2517 [18056905]

[31] Hwang TJ, Carpenter D, Lauffenburger JC, et al. Failure of Investigational Drugs in Late-Stage Clinical Development and Publication of Trial Results. JAMA Intern Med 2016;176:1826–33 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.6008 [27723879]

[32] Nagendran M, Pereira TV, Kiew G, et al. Very large treatment effects in randomised trials as an empirical marker to indicate whether subsequent trials are necessary: meta-epidemiological assessment. BMJ 2016;355:i5432 10.1136/bmj.i5432 [27789483]

[33] Kaul S. Is the Mortality Benefit With Empagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Too Good To Be True? Circulation 2016;134:94–96 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022537 [27400894]